Is e-signature legal in Canada?

July 11, 2023, 5:37 a.m.
Electronic signatures, widely referred to as e-signatures, have revolutionized the way documents are signed and legal transactions are processed. In the digital age, e-signatures offer a fast and convenient alternative to the traditional paper-and-pen method. But, while the convenience of these digital signatures is undeniable, the question of their legal validity often arises. When it comes to Canada, people often ask, "Is an e-signature legal?"
Is e-signature legal in Canada?

In a nutshell, yes, e-signatures are considered legal in Canada.

The Electronic Commerce Act (ECA) of Ontario, along with similar laws in other Canadian provinces, essentially confirms that a legal requirement for a signature is satisfied by an electronic signature. These laws ensure recognition of the legality of electronic signatures, thereby facilitating secure electronic commerce and communications. Electronic signatures provide a host of advantages such as streamlining administrative processes, facilitating international transactions, enhancing security, and making significant savings in time, efforts, and costs.

Understanding the Legal Framework

The Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA) enacted in Canada in 2000, which includes the Model Law on Electronic Commerce adopted by the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), sets the framework for the use of electronic documents and e-signatures.
PIPEDA does not explicitly define electronic signatures, but one can infer from its clauses that an electronic signature essentially is data in digital form, which can be logically associated with other data and which is used by the signatory to sign. Meaning, an electronic signature is a broad concept that could include scanned images of physical signatures, keyboard-typed names, digitally-created signatures using software, and encrypted digital representations of unique ‘secret codes’ known only to the owner and the person they share it with.
In PIPEDA, it is also emphasized that an electronic signature is only considered reliable if the method used to create, store, or transmit it does just two things: one, identifies the person possessing the distinctive signature, and two, indicates their approval of the information contained in the electronic document.

Application to Different Areas of Law

E-signatures have various applications in various areas of law. In commercial law, electronic signatures may be used in contracts and other legal documents, except in certain cases where a physical signature is explicitly required by law. In most cases, a contract is not invalid simply because it is in electronic form or is signed electronically.
In employment law, it is becoming common to use digital signage in employment contracts, confidentiality agreements, policy acknowledgment forms, and more importantly, in documents like electronic pay stubs.
Real estate law also sees e-signature usage, particularly with the advent of Electronic Signature in Global and National Commerce Act of 2000 which authorized electronic signatures for real estate contracts. Law firms now regularly use electronic documents and e-signatures to expedite transactions and render them more secure.
It's important, however, to note that there are exceptions where electronic signatures are not considered valid, such as in the creation of wills and trusts, and in some family law matters.


In conclusion, electronic signatures are indeed legal in Canada under most circumstances, as affirmed by the ECA and PIPEDA. The e-signature technology ensures their reliability and validity, making it a useful tool in the increasingly digital world of legal practice.
However, it's always prudent to consult with a legal expert before using an e-signature, in order to fully understand any potential implications or exceptions that may apply to your specific situation. Given the rapidly-evolving nature of digital technologies and the laws governing them, this legal landscape may be subject to changes.
To sum it up, while the use of e-signatures offers numerous potential benefits, it's best to stay informed about their legal parameters to avoid any complications down the line. With the right knowledge and approach, e-signatures can certainly be an effective tool in various legal, business, and personal transactions.

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